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Congenital Heart Defect: Hole in the Heart

Tetralogy of Fallot, is a congenital heart defect that negatively impacts the heart’s structure leading to poor supply of oxygen and blood to the heart and other parts of the body. This defect can be detected at the infancy stage of a child. Such infants have an unusual skin color, ranging from blue to violet tinge, which is caused by improper supply of oxygen to the body.

The 4-in-1 Condition

In acute medical terms, Tetralogy of Fallot is a combination of 4 heart defects collaged together. To understand Tetralogy of Fallot better it is important to know about these heart defects.

  • Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD): The heart has an inner wall which keeps the blood from the left side chambers mixing with blood in the right side chambers. This wall is known as the Septum. Under this heart defect there is a hole in this wall, between the two lower chambers and the ventricles. This allows the oxygen containing blood from the left ventricle to mix with the blood from right ventricle.
  • Pulmonary Stenosis: This heart defect causes the narrowing of pulmonary valve and the route between right ventricle and pulmonary artery. Under normal process, the oxygen poor blood from the right ventricle flows to the pulmonary valve and then to the pulmonary artery. The blood then travels to the lungs to procure oxygen. But when a person is suffering from Pulmonary Stenosis, the pulmonary valve does not open completely. As a result , the heart has to work harder to pump sufficient blood.
  • Right Ventricular Hypertrophy: This heart defect causes the abnormal thickening of right ventricle. Such abnormality occurs as a result of the heart working harder than normal to move blood through a narrowed down pulmonary valve.
  • Overriding Aorta: Aorta in any healthy person is located near the left ventricle, and provides oxygen rich blood to the body. But under this defect the aorta is abnormally placed between the left and right ventricles. As a result the oxygen poor blood flows into the aorta from the right ventricle rather than flowing into the pulmonary artery.

The Symptoms

As the effects of this heart defect can be prominently seen in infants, so the parents have to keep an eye on some of the distinct symptoms.  Depending on the level of obstruction in blood flow from right ventricle to the lungs, the symptoms may vary. However, keep an watch for the below mentioned signs:

  • When the baby develops deep blue skin immediately after feeding or crying it is known as Tet Spells. These spells are common for infants between 2-4 months old.
  • Abnormal coloration of the skin, from bluish to violet, caused by supply of blood that is low in oxygen.
  • Rapid breathing or shortness of breath during feeding or exercising.
  • Frequent loss of consciousness or fainting.
  • Abnormally rounded shape nail beds.
  • Lower than normal weight gain.
  • Tendency to tire out quickly during exercises or play time.
  • Signs of irritability
  • Heart murmurs
  • Prolonged crying sessions

Diagnosing the Problem

Before you see the doctor, stay prepared with certain answers such as: details about the symptoms, family history, and time frame of the Tet Spells or fainting, among many other associated details. Answering such questions accurately would allow the doctor to proceed with the proper treatment. After primary physical evaluation, the doctor would prescribe some of the below mentioned tests.

  • Echocardiography: It allows the doctors to understand the Ventricular Septal defect and its location, abnormalities in the pulmonary valve and artery, functioning of right ventricle and positioning of aorta.
  • Electrocardiogram: The test will ascertain whether the baby has Right Ventricular Hypertrophy.
  • Chest X-ray: It shows the structure of your baby’s lungs and heart. A common sign of Tetralogy of Fallot is a boot shaped heart with enlarged right ventricle.
  • Pulse Oximetry: A small sensor is placed on the finger or toe to measure the amount of oxygen in the baby’s blood.
  • Cardiac Catheterization: Before proceeding with the surgical treatment, the doctors use this test to understand the structure of your baby’s heart. In the process, a thin tube is inserted through the artery or vein in the baby’s arm, neck or groin and is routed to the heart. There is a special dye injected through the catheter to allow doctors see the heart structures on X-ray images.

The Surgical Cure

Once the doctors are sure that your baby is suffering from Tetralogy of Fallot, a surgical treatment will be suggested. Intracardiac repair is the most popular surgery to cure the defect. However, depending on the situation, Temporary surgery (using the shunting process) may also be used.

  • Intracardiac Repair: It is an open heart surgery that is done within the first year after the baby’s birth. In this process a surgeon would place a patch that closes hole between lower heart chambers (causing the Ventricular Septal defect). After this, the surgeon also repairs the narrowed down pulmonary arteries, widening them and increasing the passage of blood into the lungs. Once the surgery is done, the oxygen level in the baby’s blood will improve and the symptoms will gradually go away.
  • Temporary Surgery: If your baby had premature birth or has underdeveloped pulmonary arteries, then the doctors might conduct a temporary surgery before the intracardiac repair. Through this surgery the surgeon would create a bypass between the large artery (spanning between the aorta and pulmonary artery). This bypass would improve blood flow to the lungs. When the surgeon feels that the baby is ready for the intracardiac repair, he/she will remove the shunt.

Life after the Surgery

In maximum cases, the surgery cures babies with Tetralogy of Fallot. But after the surgery, you need to visit the consulting doctor with the baby for routine check-ups that would evaluate the success of the surgery as well as detect any new complications. Certain drugs have to be taken by the baby. The doctor might also limit your baby from certain physical activities.

Many babies detected with Tetralogy of Fallot are today leading a healthy and happy life. So, you need not worry if your baby has this congenital heart defect.

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Injections For Knee Osteoarthritis & Their Facts

The best knee surgeons in Delhi NCR and India can offer a variety of treatments to relieve your symptoms. And of the most common treatments are inject medication into your knee. Some people find it painless and quickly effective whereas other people find them with full of side effects. The best thing is to know about before opting for it.

There are different types of injections, and they’re an important part of treating knee osteoarthritis for many people who are suffering severe knee issue. Injections can be especially helpful for people who haven’t gotten relief from NSAIDs like ibuprofen, or people who can’t take those drugs due to side effects.

What Is Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease and a common form of arthritis that very often affects the joints, especially knees. It develops when the cartilage, the smooth covering that protects the bones in the joint breaks down. The surface of the bones becomes damaged, causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and disability. If it is not treated early and properly, it can cause immobility to the person and even sometimes so severe that the person can’t do their daily chores.

How Knee Injections Work

The first and foremost task is that your doctor will give you a shot of anaesthetic to numb your knee. He or she may use a needle to draw out any extra fluid that’s in or around your knee. After that, you’ll get the pain-relieving injection, usually just below your kneecap. Take care while having the shot though the inject will not hurt you, and the drug will work throughout the joint.

Different treatments have side effects that you should discuss with your doctor beforehand. The two most common types of knee injection for OA are Corticosteroids and Hyaluronic acid.

Reduce Inflammation With Steroids

Corticosteroid injections

Corticosteroid injections are more useful that the hyaluronic acid as it treats flare-ups of osteoarthritis pain and swelling with fluid buildup in the knee. These injections help relieve knee problem’s symptoms by reducing inflammation in the joint.

Surgivisor is presenting you some facts regarding the injection that you need to know:

  • They work fast and in a short span of time – usually within 24 to 48 hours.
  • The pain relief lasts from 6 to12 weeks, according to the intensity of your pain and its source.
  • Avoid using them more frequently. A corticosteroid shot often works best the first time and after that, they tend to give less relief.
  • Patients can use these shots two to three times a year. Using them too often may damage cells in the knee that make cartilage.

Hyaluronic Acid

Most of the fluid in a healthy knee is hyaluronic acid and to retain that, this injection is introduced. When the knee have started showing symptoms of knee osteoarthritis, the hyaluronic acid in your knee thins. This is why best knee replacement surgeon in Delhi NCR and India opt to inject more hyaluronic acid into your knee to boost the supply.

Thought this injection shot is not the first or traditional approach. But in some cases, they are suggested by the surgeons and doctors:

  • Your symptoms aren’t improved by pain-relief medications or non-drug treatments.
  • You can’t take other pain relievers.
  • A steroid shot doesn’t help enough.
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10 Best Exercises Helpful After Hip Replacement Surgery

Surgivisor advices you to begin your treatment or take any type of action after consulting with your hip replacement surgeon in Delhi, NCR and India. It is very important to consult with your physiotherapist and surgeon first because they will tell your immune system, level of hazard you have gone through with and time of recovery you will take. And only after these facts, the type of exercises will be recommended.

Though it is very important to exercise after surgery to increase the strength and flexibility in your new hip, it is also very important to know your body strength level first. Do you know that recommended exercises help to prevent blood clots? Yes, and this is why most of the orthopedic surgeons advice to do exercises as a necessary attempt. After hip replacement surgery, you may feel uncomfortable at first and a bit difficult but it will soon become normal like everyday activities sooner. You can increase the intensity of doing these exercises or can repeat repeat each one every day. Keep up the balance and repeat the exercises on both legs to make them equally strong and flexible. Do them slowly and with control.

Exercise 1: Increase Hip Flexibility And Strength

  1. Lie on your side with hips and knees bent and a pillow between your knees.
  2. Keep your feet together.
  3. Do not twist or use your back muscles.
  4. Lift the top knee off the pillow like a clam shell opening.
  5. Hold for a count of 3 to 5 and slowly lower the knee to the pillow. Repeat.

Exercise 2: Increase Hip Flexibility And Strength

  1. Lie on your side with the bottom leg bent to stop you from rolling onto your back.
  2. Keeping the top leg straight, lift it toward the ceiling making sure you do not roll forward or backward.
  3. Slowly lower the leg. Repeat.

Exercise 3: Increase Hip Flexibility And Strengthen Hips And Stomach Muscles

  1. Lie on your back with one leg bent.
  2. Tighten your stomach muscles and lift your bent leg being careful not to bend it more than 90 degrees.
  3. Keeping your stomach muscles tight, slowly lower the leg back to the starting position. Repeat. And discuss this exercise with your hip replacement doctors in Delhi, NCR and India.

Exercise 4: Strengthen Hips

  1. Lie on your stomach.
  2. Tighten your buttocks and lift one leg.
  3. Hold for a count of 3 to 5 and slowly lower your leg. Repeat.

Exercise 5: Increase Leg Flexibility And Strengthen Back Thigh Muscles

  1. Lie on your stomach with your legs straight.
  2. Bend one leg, lifting the heel toward your buttocks.
  3. Slowly lower your leg to the starting position. Repeat.

Exercise 6: Strengthen Front Thigh Muscles

  1. Sit in a steady chair and place an elastic loop around both ankles.
  2. Lifting your first foot, straight your leg while keeping the other foot on the floor as you stretch the elastic loop.
  3. Slowly lower your foot and return to the starting position. Repeat.

Visit to know more about hip replacement cost in Delhi, NCR and India.

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