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FIVE important Gynaecological problems in Women

Gynecological problems are very common and they start with our menstrual cycles and may affect any organ of the female reproductive system. Irregular periods, heavy or thin bleeding, pain, itching or swelling in vaginal areas are few common symptoms which most of us do face at some point of time in our life but, we are shy of discussing such IMPORTANT ISSUES openly.

Though, the list of gynaecological problems is long, but understanding few most important of them that trap our women to save their lives from further anguish is required.

1.PCOD (Poly Cyst Ovarian Disease)

PCOD is the most common hormonal reproductive problem affecting 5-10% of women of childbearing age in which monthly ovulation may not occur and levels of male hormones (androgens) get elevated, making it difficult for a woman to conceive.


  • Few or no menstrual periods or heavy, irregular bleeding.
  • Hair loss from the scalp and hair growth (hirsutism) on other body parts.
  • Acne and oily skin.
  • Infertility or repeated miscarriages.
  • Insulin resistance and obesity.
  • Depression or mood swings.


  • Lifestyle changesdiet and exercise (for weight reduction), are considered first-line of treatment.
  • Medication— For women who want to become pregnant, fertility pills (oral anti-estrogen) or injections are given for ovulation. Oral contraceptives pills are given for regulating menstrual periods and reducing androgen hormone.
  • Surgery: A minor surgical procedure called laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) may be helpful. A small cut in the lower abdomen is made and a thin microscope called a laparoscope is passed through the abdomen. The ovaries are then surgically treated using heat or a laser to destroy the tissue that’s producing androgens (male hormones). LOD correct the hormone imbalance and can restore the normal function of your ovaries. 

2. Endometriosis:

Endometrium is the tissue that normally lines the uterus or womb. When this tissue grows outside the uterus or to other areas in the body (like ovaries & fallopian tubes, vagina, cervix, bladder or rectum), it develops into lesions, nodules or growths called endometriosis.

  • Very painful menstrual cramps.
  • Chronic lower back and pelvic pain.
  • Pain during or after intercourse.
  • Painful bowel movements or while urinating during menstrual periods.
  • Bleeding or spotting between menstrual periods.
  • Infertility occurs in 30-40% of women.
  • Stomach (digestive) problems like diarrhea, constipation, bloating, or nausea.


  • Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and hormonal birth control pills help in relieving pain.
  • Hormone (progestins) Injectables and implantables (intrauterine device) are also effective in managing pain.
  • Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists— These are medicines that work by causing a temporary menopause. The treatment causes the ovaries to stop producing estrogen, which causes the endometriosis implants to shrink. This treatment reduces pain in over 80 percent of women, including women with severe pain.
  • Surgery: For growth larger than 4-5 cm in the pelvic area, laproscopic surgery may be required to remove the mass. Removal of the uterus (Hysterectomy) or ovaries and fallopian tubes (salpingo-oophorectomy) might be recommended for those who continue to have severe symptoms and do not want to become pregnant in future.

3. Dysmenorrhea (Painful menstruation):

Normally, during menstruation, the uterus contracts but when it contracts too strongly, it can press against nearby blood vessels, cutting off the supply of oxygen to the muscle tissue of the uterus resulting into immense pain. It is the most common menstrual disorder and is estimated to occur in 20% to 90% of women of reproductive age.

It is mainly of two types viz: Primary dysmenorrhea that occurs in the absence of any identifiable pelvic disease. Secondary dysmenorrhea is due to disorder in the woman’s reproductive organs, mainly endometriosis.


  • Severe pain and pressure in the abdomen, hips, lower back, and inner thighs.
  • Upset stomach and vomiting in severe cases.


  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics are the most reliable and effective treatment for relieving dysmenorrhea.
  • Topical heating can give relief to the pain. 

4. Abnormal vaginal bleeding

This refers to the flow of blood from the vagina that occurs either at the wrong time (besides menstrual periods) during the month or in inappropriate amounts. It may have many possible causes and the assessment by the doctor may require information related to the following factors and symptoms:

  • Age: Young- pre-pubertal girl, woman of reproductive age or postmenopausal women.
  • Pregnancy status of the woman: Irregular bleeding may be a sign of very early pregnancy or bleeding during pregnancy may be associated with miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, an abnormal location of the placenta, cervical infection or polyp and premature labor.
  • Pattern of bleeding: The duration too long (hypermenorrhea) or too short (hypomenorrhea), interval too frequent (polymenorrhea) or too seldom (oligomenorrhea) and amount of vaginal bleeding too much bleeding (menorrhagia) or too little volume (hypomenorrhea) may suggest what type of abnormality is responsible for the bleeding.
  • Vaginal bleeding may occur during or after intercourse due to injury, infection or due to tumors or polyps on the cervix or vaginal wall.


  • Medications: If the cause is a precancerous change in the lining of the uterus, progesterone medications may be prescribed to reduce the buildup of precancerous uterine lining tissues.
  • A menopausal woman is offered an oral contraceptive to establish a more regular bleeding pattern.
  • In case of polyps or other benign growths, surgical removal is recommended.
  • In case of infection, antibiotics are necessary.
  • For uncontrolled bleeding, a surgical procedure called dilation and curettage (D&C) may be necessary.
  • Occasionally, a hysterectomy (uterus removal) may be done.

5. Fibroid Tumors

Fibroids are the most frequently diagnosed tumor (non-cancerous) that develop in the muscular wall of the uterus. They can range in size from very tiny (a quarter of an inch) to larger than a cantaloupe.

Most fibroids occur in women of reproductive age and are seldom seen in young women who have not begun to menstruate and usually stabilize or shrink during menopause.                       


Some women never exhibit any symptoms nor have any problems associated with fibroids. Only 10 to 20 percent of women with fibroids exhibit following symptoms:

  • Heavy, prolonged menstrual periods, sometimes with clots; leading to anemia.
  • Pain in pelvic area, back and legs.
  • Pain during intercourse.
  • Frequent urge to urinate.
  • Constipation and bloating.
  • Abnormally enlarged abdomen.


  • For women who experience occasional pelvic pain or discomfort, over-the counter anti-inflammatory or pain-reducing drugs are given.
  • Nonsurgical Uterine Fibroid Embolization: In this, a tiny slit in the groin is made and a catheter is inserted into the femoral artery and tiny particles of the size of grains of sand are released into the uterine arteries that supply blood to the fibroid tumor. This blocks the blood flow to the fibroid tumor and causes it to shrink and die.
  • Magnetic Resonance Guided Focused Ultrasound is a non-invasive outpatient, procedure that uses high intensity focused ultrasound waves to ablate (destroy) the fibroid tissue. MRI is used to see inside the body to deliver the treatment directly to the fibroid. High-intensity ultrasound energy that is directed to the fibroid heats up the tissue and destroys it. This method of tissue destruction is called thermal ablation.
  • Surgical Treatments for Fibroids: Gynecologists perform hysterectomy(uterus removal) and myomectomy (cutting out the fibroid and then stitching the uterus back) surgery.

In case you experience one or more of these warning signs on a regular basis, consult your gynaecologist without any delay.

Your health is important, please don’t ignore it!

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Injections For Knee Osteoarthritis & Their Facts

The best knee surgeons in Delhi NCR and India can offer a variety of treatments to relieve your symptoms. And of the most common treatments are inject medication into your knee. Some people find it painless and quickly effective whereas other people find them with full of side effects. The best thing is to know about before opting for it.

There are different types of injections, and they’re an important part of treating knee osteoarthritis for many people who are suffering severe knee issue. Injections can be especially helpful for people who haven’t gotten relief from NSAIDs like ibuprofen, or people who can’t take those drugs due to side effects.

What Is Osteoarthritis?

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease and a common form of arthritis that very often affects the joints, especially knees. It develops when the cartilage, the smooth covering that protects the bones in the joint breaks down. The surface of the bones becomes damaged, causing pain, swelling, stiffness, and disability. If it is not treated early and properly, it can cause immobility to the person and even sometimes so severe that the person can’t do their daily chores.

How Knee Injections Work

The first and foremost task is that your doctor will give you a shot of anaesthetic to numb your knee. He or she may use a needle to draw out any extra fluid that’s in or around your knee. After that, you’ll get the pain-relieving injection, usually just below your kneecap. Take care while having the shot though the inject will not hurt you, and the drug will work throughout the joint.

Different treatments have side effects that you should discuss with your doctor beforehand. The two most common types of knee injection for OA are Corticosteroids and Hyaluronic acid.

Reduce Inflammation With Steroids

Corticosteroid injections

Corticosteroid injections are more useful that the hyaluronic acid as it treats flare-ups of osteoarthritis pain and swelling with fluid buildup in the knee. These injections help relieve knee problem’s symptoms by reducing inflammation in the joint.

Surgivisor is presenting you some facts regarding the injection that you need to know:

  • They work fast and in a short span of time – usually within 24 to 48 hours.
  • The pain relief lasts from 6 to12 weeks, according to the intensity of your pain and its source.
  • Avoid using them more frequently. A corticosteroid shot often works best the first time and after that, they tend to give less relief.
  • Patients can use these shots two to three times a year. Using them too often may damage cells in the knee that make cartilage.

Hyaluronic Acid

Most of the fluid in a healthy knee is hyaluronic acid and to retain that, this injection is introduced. When the knee have started showing symptoms of knee osteoarthritis, the hyaluronic acid in your knee thins. This is why best knee replacement surgeon in Delhi NCR and India opt to inject more hyaluronic acid into your knee to boost the supply.

Thought this injection shot is not the first or traditional approach. But in some cases, they are suggested by the surgeons and doctors:

  • Your symptoms aren’t improved by pain-relief medications or non-drug treatments.
  • You can’t take other pain relievers.
  • A steroid shot doesn’t help enough.
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10 Best Exercises Helpful After Hip Replacement Surgery

Surgivisor advices you to begin your treatment or take any type of action after consulting with your hip replacement surgeon in Delhi, NCR and India. It is very important to consult with your physiotherapist and surgeon first because they will tell your immune system, level of hazard you have gone through with and time of recovery you will take. And only after these facts, the type of exercises will be recommended.

Though it is very important to exercise after surgery to increase the strength and flexibility in your new hip, it is also very important to know your body strength level first. Do you know that recommended exercises help to prevent blood clots? Yes, and this is why most of the orthopedic surgeons advice to do exercises as a necessary attempt. After hip replacement surgery, you may feel uncomfortable at first and a bit difficult but it will soon become normal like everyday activities sooner. You can increase the intensity of doing these exercises or can repeat repeat each one every day. Keep up the balance and repeat the exercises on both legs to make them equally strong and flexible. Do them slowly and with control.

Exercise 1: Increase Hip Flexibility And Strength

  1. Lie on your side with hips and knees bent and a pillow between your knees.
  2. Keep your feet together.
  3. Do not twist or use your back muscles.
  4. Lift the top knee off the pillow like a clam shell opening.
  5. Hold for a count of 3 to 5 and slowly lower the knee to the pillow. Repeat.

Exercise 2: Increase Hip Flexibility And Strength

  1. Lie on your side with the bottom leg bent to stop you from rolling onto your back.
  2. Keeping the top leg straight, lift it toward the ceiling making sure you do not roll forward or backward.
  3. Slowly lower the leg. Repeat.

Exercise 3: Increase Hip Flexibility And Strengthen Hips And Stomach Muscles

  1. Lie on your back with one leg bent.
  2. Tighten your stomach muscles and lift your bent leg being careful not to bend it more than 90 degrees.
  3. Keeping your stomach muscles tight, slowly lower the leg back to the starting position. Repeat. And discuss this exercise with your hip replacement doctors in Delhi, NCR and India.

Exercise 4: Strengthen Hips

  1. Lie on your stomach.
  2. Tighten your buttocks and lift one leg.
  3. Hold for a count of 3 to 5 and slowly lower your leg. Repeat.

Exercise 5: Increase Leg Flexibility And Strengthen Back Thigh Muscles

  1. Lie on your stomach with your legs straight.
  2. Bend one leg, lifting the heel toward your buttocks.
  3. Slowly lower your leg to the starting position. Repeat.

Exercise 6: Strengthen Front Thigh Muscles

  1. Sit in a steady chair and place an elastic loop around both ankles.
  2. Lifting your first foot, straight your leg while keeping the other foot on the floor as you stretch the elastic loop.
  3. Slowly lower your foot and return to the starting position. Repeat.

Visit to know more about hip replacement cost in Delhi, NCR and India.

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